Luigi Lavazza and Sandro Morasca and Davide Tosi
Background: Software development productivity is widely investigated in the Software Engineering literature. However, continuously updated evidence on productivity is constantly needed, due to the rapid evolution of software development techniques and methods, and also the regular improvement in the use of the existing ones. Objectives: The main goal of this paper is to investigate which factors affect productivity. It was also investigated whether economies or diseconomies of scale exist and whether they may be influenced by productivity factors. Method: An empirical investigation was carried out using a dataset available at the software project repository ISBSG. The major focus was on factors that may affect productivity from a functional point of view. The the conducted analysis was compared with the productivity data provided by Capers Jones in 1996 and 2013 and with an investigation on open-source software by Delorey et al. Results: This empirical study led to the discovery of interesting models that show how the different factors do (or do not) affect productivity. It was also found out that some factors appear to allow for economies of scale, while others appear to cause diseconomies of scale. Conclusions: This paper provides some more evidence about how four factors, i.e., programming languages, business areas, architectural types, and the usage of CASE tools, influence productivity and highlights some interesting divergences in comparison with the results reported by Capers Jones and Delorey et al.},
 R. Premraj, M. Shepperd, B. Kitchenham, and P. Forselius, “An empirical analysis of software productivity over time,” in Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Software Metrics Symposium, ser. METRICS ’05. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2005, pp. 37–37.
 L. Lavazza, S. Morasca, and D. Tosi, “An empirical study on the effect of programming languages on productivity,” in Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, ser. SAC ’16. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2016, pp. 1434–1439.
 C. Jones, Programming languages table. Release 8.2, Software Productivity Research, Inc., (1996). [Online]. https://engenhariasoftware.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/conversao.pdf
 D.P. Delorey, C.D. Knutson, and S. Chun, “Do programming languages affect productivity? A case study using data from open source projects,” in Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Emerging Trends in FLOSS Research and Development, ser. FLOSS ’07. Washington, DC, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2007, pp. 8–8.
 Software Engineering NESMA Functional Size Measurement Method, Version 2.1, Definitions and counting guidelines for the application of Function Point Analysis, International Organization for Standardization, ISO Std. ISO/IEC 24750:2005, 2005.
 ISBSG, “The performance of real-time, business application and component software projects,” The Common Software Measurement International Consortium & The International Software Benchmarking Standards Group, Tech. Rep., Apr. 2011.
 W.H. Kruskal and W.A. Wallis, “Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 47, No. 260, 1952, pp. 583–621. [Online]. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2280779
 L. Lavazza and S. Morasca, “Software effort estimation with a generalized robust linear regression technique,” in 16th International Conference on Evaluation Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2012), May 2012, pp. 206–215.
 J. Vosburgh, B. Curtis, R. Wolverton, B. Albert, H. Malec, S. Hoben, and Y. Liu, “Productivity factors and programming environments,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Engineering, ser. ICSE ’84. Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 1984, pp. 143–152. [Online]. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=800054.801963
 K.D. Maxwell, L. Van Wassenhove, and S. Dutta, “Software development productivity of european space, military, and industrial applications,” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 22, No. 10, Oct. 1996, pp. 706–718.
 K. Kennedy, C. Koelbel, and R. Schreiber, “Defining and measuring the productivity of programming languages,” The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications, Vol. 18, No. 4, Nov. 2004, pp. 441–448.
|||Luigi Lavazza, Sandro Morasca, Davide Tosi, "An Empirical Study on the Factors Affecting Software Development Productivity", In e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 27-49, 2018.|